Problem Statement - Assam
- As per the study, “Safe Drinking Water a rarity in Assam”, 43.28% rural households in Assam have access to safe drinking water; the rest is still drinking and using untreated water at household and community level.
- Major contaminants found in water are Iron, Arsenic, Fluoride, Microbial contaminants.
- Causing water borne diseases like cancer of lungs, liver, bladder and skin, headache, drowsiness, fever, diarrhea etc.
- According to 2011 census data, 78.8% households have water sources within the premises and 12.8 have near the premises and 8.4% donot have access to water nearby.
- 19.1% households have well water, 61.5% have handpumps/tubewell water, 6.8% have tap water and others use other sources of water.
- Only 1.1% households have covered well, 18% households have uncovered well.
- According to Ministry of Jal shakti report, 3.05% households have piped water supply connectivity.
- Sand filters are commonly used as a source of water purification for excessive iron content in water by 58.62% in Nalbari, Baksa and Kamrup rural; as per baseline study.
- Knowledge and awareness with regard to sanitation and hygiene is comparatively low.
- Past myths, High stigma and taboo attached to Menstruation in the community.
Problem Statement- Tripura
- The water is mostly contaminated by iron.
- Iron removal plants are set up in a few blocks by the Govt. but the community faces issues relating to safe drinking water due to ‘Quality and Infrastructure’ related problems.
- There is only one water quality testing Centre in the State under DWS.
- As per Census 2011, Tripurahas 39.6 percent villages, where at least 10 households report that drinking water sourceis located more than 500 m away, the second highest in the country.
- According to 2011 census data, 69.6 % households have water within the premises and 16.7 % have near the premises and 13.7 % donot have access to water nearby their house.
- 35.4% households have well water, 33% have handpumps/tubewell water, 25.2% have tap water and others use other sources of water.
- According to Ministry of Jal shakti report, 8.55% households have piped water supply connectivity.
- Only 3.5% households have covered well, 31.9% households have uncovered well.
- The community is dependent on handpumps and use locally made household level filters made up of concrete blocks.
- There is less awareness in the community with regard to hand washing and menstrual hygiene management.
- A study was done on Menstrual Hygiene to 21-30 years of age group. Cloth was the major absorbent material (44.0%) followed by sanitary napkin (36.2%). 47.5% of the study subjects reused the material. Only 2.1% of the study subjects changed the material less than 2 times/day. More than 90% of the study subjects clean their private parts regularly. 66.0% of the study subjects disposed the material in dustbin. Annex is the report.
Reference: A cross sectional study on MH practices among the village women attending a primary health centre, Tripura
Problem Statement - Manipur
- The level of pollution and contamination of water bodies in the state is moderate. However in some instances major water bodies like Nambul river Kongba river, Loktak lake the degree of pollution is very high.
- Water quality is a great concern mainly due to inflow of the most polluted drains/rivers in the state
- Studies on WQI in many parts of the valley area is reported to have high concentration and beyond the permissible limit as defined by WHO and BIS and is reported to be not fit for drinking water for human and even animals in many cases.
- Groundwater in the state is mostly exploited through open wells. Tube wells have been installed at various places of the valley areas with the yields ranging from 0.6 to 4 cu.m/hr.
- 16% of total HHs have acess to drinking water source within premise (India water portal), with nearly 46% HHs near premises and 38 % away.
- 8.5 % households have well water, 8 % have handpumps/ tubewell water, 29.5 % have tap water and 54% use other sources of water.
- According to Ministry of Jal shakti report, 6.04% households have piped water supply connectivity.
- Only 3.1 % households have covered well, 5.4% households have uncovered well and 16.9% consume untreated tap water.
- Inspite of the state government commitment of providing potable water for all its people by 2022, only about 70 MLD is able to provide as against the required 101.9 MLD.
- Communities primarily in the hills collects the stream water flowing in between the hills which brings the water to some common point of the village through pipes. Some households directly consume these water without any proper treatment risking to health hazards.
- Myths and stigmas attached to menstruation in the community.
- The social taboo is very prevalent in the rural part of the state where young girls seldom shared about issues related to menstrual hygiene with mothers or teachers.
- There is lack of basic hygiene knowledge amongst the remote villages, lack of understanding on the biology of menstruation amongst majority of girls and women.
- Even sanitary pads distributed in government hospitals after a delivery and by ASHAs to girls and women in villages are not known in this region, nor are similar government relief policies are hardly visible.
- Even, Government’s Suvidha Sanitary Napkins sales is reported to be Nil in Manipur during 2019.
1) Arsenic and Iron Removal Plant
- Community based drinking water purification system set up in Nalbari district of Assam that removes iron and arsenic in water .
- One such system can cater to 200-250 households.
- Community can manage such systems with a nominal water tariff and thereby making it self sustainable.
2) Point of Use water purifiers integrated with Social and Behaviour Change Communication
- A household level and user friendly water purification system to provide potable drinking water.
- The POU treatment provides clean water for people without access to clean, municipally treated water, which is prominent in rural Assam and other parts of North-east.
3) Menstrual Hygiene Management
- Empowering women and promoting gender equitable norms through behavioural change and communication.
- Promoting Social Entrepreneurship to women
- Inculcating Safe and Hygienic Habits
- Creating awareness towards responsible disposal